Oryol is a city (a settlement exists no later than from the middle of the 11th century) in Russia, the administrative center of the Oryol region and the Oryol municipal district (which is not part of it). Being a city of regional significance, it forms the municipality of the urban district of the city of Oryol. It is located 368 km southwest of Moscow, on the Central Russian Upland in the European part of Russia, on both banks of the Oka River and its tributary Orlik. Oryol and the Oryol region are part of the Central Federal District, as well as the Central Economic Region. The city of the first salute (August 5, 1943) and the city of military glory (April 27, 2007). On June 12, 2021, Orel was officially given the status of the "Literary Capital of Russia".
Area - 12121 hectares. The population of the city is 298,172 people. (2022).
Folk etymology connects the name of the city with the events that allegedly took place during its founding in 1566. By order of Tsar Ivan the Terrible, the construction of a fortress city began to protect the southern borders of the Russian state from the raids of the Crimean Tatars. When they began to cut down an oak that grew on the bank at the confluence of the two rivers Oka and Orlik, an eagle flew from the top of the tree. “Here is the owner,” said one of the men. Ivan Vasilyevich ordered to name the city after the bird.
According to the scientific version, the name may come from the hydronym of the river Orel (Orel) - the left tributary of the Oka, mentioned in the "Book of the Big Drawing" (1627), and from the 2nd half of the 19th century as Orlik. There is a version about the Baltic origin of the name - cf. numerous Baltic hydronyms: Prus. Arle (later Orlen), Arelen, Erling; lit. Arlìnė, Ar̃liškė, Arlìškės, Arlìškiai; Latvian. Arlan̦i, Arlath, Erle; probably here are Arelen, Erling, Arley, Orley, M. Orlyonka, Orel. Ultimately, hydronyms go back to lit. erlos ‘hay meadow’, other Prussian. arelis ‘eagle’, or a word from ancient European languages, ultimately ascending to the Indo-European root *er- ‘to move’, etc.
The following articles are included in the current Regulations on the coat of arms and flag of the city of Orel:
Article 2.1. The flag of the city of Orel is a rectangular panel of two vertical stripes: the left one (near the flagpole) is blue and the right one is red. The ratio of the sizes of the stripes is 1: 9. In the center of the red stripe is