Pakistan (Urdu پاکِستان [paːkɪˈst̪aːn] - "the land of the pure", English Pakistan [ˈpækɪstæn] or [pɑːkiˈstɑːn]), the full name is the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (Urdu اسلا́می جمہوار اکِس South Asian state, formed as a result of the division of the territory of British India in 1947.
It is washed by the waters of the Arabian Sea in the south, bordered by Iran in the southwest, Afghanistan in the northwest and north, China in the northeast and India in the east. Land borders: India - 2,912 km, Afghanistan - 2,430 km, Iran - 909 km, China - 523 km.
Pakistan is the fifth most populous country in the world with a population of 218,066,558 according to the 2020 census and the second largest Muslim population after Indonesia (178 and 205 million Muslims, respectively). The country is a member of the UN, the Commonwealth of Nations, the World Trade Organization, the Shanghai Cooperation Organization, as well as a member of the developing countries of the Group of 77.
The name Pakistan literally means “land of the pure” in Urdu and Persian, from pāk meaning “pure” in Persian and Pashto. The suffix ستان (-stān) is a Persian word for place and also resembles the synonymous Sanskrit word sthāna स्थान.
The name of the country was coined in 1933 by Rahmat Ali, an independence activist who published it in his Now or Never brochure, where he used it as an acronym without the letter “i” (“thirty million Muslim brothers who live in PAKSTAN” ), from the names of the five northern regions of British India: Punjab, Afghanistan, Kashmir, Sindh and Baluchistan. The letter "i" was subsequently included for easier pronunciation.
In the III-II millennia BC. NS. on the territory of Pakistan was the center of one of the oldest civilizations in the history of mankind - the Harappan. In the II millennium BC. NS. the territory of Pakistan was inhabited by the Aryans. As a result of the campaigns of Alexander the Great on the West Indian principalities (such as Taxila), the culture of Hellenism is influenced. A powerful Kushan kingdom was formed - the first center for the spread of Buddhism.
From the VIII century A.D. NS. on the territory of the country begins to spread