Pacifism

Article

July 6, 2022

Pacifism (from Latin pacificus - peacemaking, from pax - peace and facio - I do), pacifism - the ideology of resistance to violence for the sake of its disappearance. Pacifism includes and includes non-violence, anti-imperialism, disarmament, arms control, demilitarization, anti-militarism, anti-war and anti-nuclear movements, which are often associated and linked with it. The pacifist movement, the peace movement, is an anti-war social movement that opposes military methods of resolving political conflicts, in particular by condemning the immorality of such methods. Consistent pacifists condemn any war, denying the very possibility of wars being lawful, national liberation, sacred, and the like.

History

Christian pacifism

Pacifists were found among the early Christians. Although the New Testament does not directly condemn military service, as can be seen from the example of the pious centurion, the soldiers who came to be baptized by John the Baptist, the centurion Cornelius and others, some Christians could avoid military service due to the moral licentiousness that reigned in the Roman army, and also because for unwillingness to participate in pagan rituals that accompanied military life. At the same time, some early Christian writers adhered to a pacifist position. So Justin Martyr wrote: “And we, who previously killed one another, not only do not quarrel with enemies, but, so as not to lie and deceive those who interrogate, we joyfully confess Christ and die.” The most striking expression of pacifism is Tertullian's treatise On the Warrior's Crown, written by him after his transition to the Montanist sect. At the same time, pacifism was not the predominant trend in the life of the early Christian church. It is noteworthy that there is no known source from any Christian church about excommunication or penance imposed on a particular member of the church for being a warrior. As time went on, more and more Christians chose military service. Under Marcus Aurelius, they were already part of one of the great legions of the Roman army, the XII Lightning Legion, under Diocletian they were in the personal guard of the emperor. After the acquisition of state power by Christians under Constantine the Great, pacifism