World War I


August 13, 2022

World War I (or the Great War; July 28, 1914 - November 11, 1918) - a military conflict involving 38 countries between two coalitions of states in Europe, the fighting of which also spread to the Middle East, Africa and parts of Asia. One of the deadliest conflicts in history: about 9 million people died in combat and more than 5 million civilians as a result of military occupation, bombing, famine and disease. Millions more died as a result of the genocide in the Ottoman Empire and the flu pandemic of 1918. By 1914, the great powers of Europe were divided into two military-political blocs: the Entente, which included France, Russia and Great Britain; and the Triple Alliance of Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy. Tensions in the Balkans came to a head on June 28, 1914, after the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand, heir to Austria-Hungary, by the Bosnian Serb Gavrilo Princip. Austria-Hungary blamed Serbia for this, leading to the July Crisis, an attempt to avoid conflict through diplomacy. Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia on 28 July. Russia declared defense of Serbia, and by August 4, the alliance system had drawn Germany, France, and Britain into the war with their respective colonies. In November, the Ottoman Empire, Germany, and Austria-Hungary formed the Central Powers bloc, and in April 1915, Italy defected to Britain, France, Russia, and Serbia, forming the Allied bloc in World War I. In the beginning war on two fronts, Germany's strategy in 1914 according to the Schlieffen plan was to first defeat France, then transfer its forces to Eastern Europe and defeat Russia. However, the German advance into France was halted, and by the end of 1914 the Western Front had stabilized from the English Channel to Switzerland, changing little until 1917. On the contrary, the Eastern Front was more mobile - Austria-Hungary and Russia won and lost significant territories. Other theaters of operations are the Middle East, Italian and Balkan, which drew Bulgaria, Romania and Greece into the war. In August and September 1914, Russian troops won the Battle of Gumbinnen, but lost the Battle of the Masurian Lakes. Success �