Portugal (port. Portugal, [puɾtuˈɡaɫ]), officially - the Portuguese Republic (port. República Portuguesa [ʀɛˈpublikɐ purtuˈɡezɐ]) is the westernmost state in continental Europe, located in the southwestern part of the Iberian Peninsula.
In the north and east it borders on Spain, in the south and west it is washed by the Atlantic Ocean; thus, this state as a whole is a semi-enclave, or coastal enclave. The name of the country comes from the city of Porto (Latin Portus Cale). The official and national language is Portuguese.
It is listed among the developed countries of the world. Republic since 1910. Unitary state.
Member of NATO (since 1949), UN (since 1955), OECD (since 1961), European Union (since January 1, 1986), Commonwealth of Portuguese-speaking countries (since 1996), Council of Europe. It is part of the Schengen area and the Euro area. Participates in Ibero-American summits since 1991.
In the IV-III centuries BC. NS. most of the territory of Portugal was inhabited by the Indo-European tribes of the Lusitanians. At the end of the 1st century. BC NS. the conquest of the territories of modern Portugal by Ancient Rome was completed. In the 2nd half of the 5th-6th centuries. n. NS. the territory of modern Portugal was conquered by the Visigoths, led by King Theodoric II, in 713-718. - Arabs. During the Reconquista in 868, under the leadership of Vimara Peres, the county of Portugal was created, which in 1139 (officially in 1143) became an independent kingdom. Sansho I Settler made a contribution to the history of Portugal in the form of a conductor of reforms of a peaceful nature, under Afonso II, a parliament called Cortes began to work, and Afonso III of Boulogne completed the Reconquista. In 1279-1415 there was a strengthening of the monarchy in Portugal, which was marked by transformations under Dinis I the Farmer, peace with the Kingdom of Castile and Leon, the crisis of 1383-1385. From the 15th century, beginning with the reign of João I of the Aviz dynasty, the colonial expansion of Portugal began; The Portuguese colonial empire reached its peak in the first half of the 16th century.
In 1498, Vasco da Gama became the first European to reach India by sea.
In 1580, King Enrique dies, and the Portuguese throne passes into the hands of the Spanish king Philip II of Habsburg. Until 1640, Portugal was in personal union with Spain. At the beginning of the 18th century, she participated in the war for the Spanish us