Prior (from Latin prior "first; senior") - title (rank), position and their bearer (official).
In the ancient Roman army, the prior is the commander of the first century of manipula.
Catholic monasteries, monastic and spiritual orders of knights
Prior - (see: Church degrees and positions) in Catholicism, the title of abbot of a small male Catholic monastery or senior after the abbot-abbot of a member of the monastic community (first assistant to the abbot). The monastery in which the prior resides is called the prior.
In the modern practice of Catholic monastic life, a prior can be called a prior:
conventual priory, elected by the monastic community, performing the de facto role of abbot, but not having the title of abbot.
an ordinary monastery with prior status appointed by the abbot.
abbey, who runs it as temporary administrator on behalf of the abbot.
a separate monastery or a whole province in some orders with an extensive hierarchical structure: Dominicans, Carmelites. The term first appeared in the Benedictine order, the concept came into use after the Cluny reform of the order. Priors were monks of the Cluny order, appointed by the abbot to participate in the management of the monastery and subordinate to him.
Later priors began to be called the abbots of monasteries. Priors are the abbots of the monasteries of the Cistercians, Cartesians, Dominicans, Carmelites, Augustinians, Premonstrants, Servites, Paulins, and others.
The abbots of the Cartesian monasteries are called priors. The general of the order is the Prior of Grand Chartreuse. The general chapter of the order is made up of all the priors and the community of Grand Chartreuse.
Among the Dominicans, the provincial prior (provincial) heads the branch of the order in the country, the conventual prior (or simply prior) - the community (priory, convention).
The Order of Augustine, the Carmelite Order and the Servite Order are led by the Prior Generals.
In spiritual knightly orders, the heads of the provinces (local divisions of the order) are called priors. Prior or Grand Prior is the second official of the order after the Grand Master (Grand Master).
Medieval Italian communes
Prior in the medieval communes of Central Ita