July 6, 2022
Professor - the highest academic title in the USSR (since 1934) and the Russian Federation (since 1991), assigned to the most qualified teachers and researchers of higher educational institutions and research institutions, leading independent courses and leading research work. The academic title of professor in Russia is for life. The title is awarded to persons who have a scientific degree of Doctor of Science and who meet a number of formal conditions confirming their experience and high qualifications. The institutions awarding professorships are the Russian Ministry of Education and Science, and in some cases, state academies of sciences. The word "professor", in addition to the academic title, is also used to designate a teaching position in a university. At the same time, although professorial positions exist all over the world, the conceptual distinction between “professor-title” and “professor-position” is accepted only in Russia and some post-Soviet states. In other countries, the admission of a person to a position automatically means receiving the title of the same name for the duration of the employment relationship, without any special centralized assignment. The need for a unified procedure for conferring the titles of professor (and associate professor) earlier in the USSR and now in Russia is associated with a significant (greater than in the West) spread of the scientific and pedagogical level in different regions and different institutions.