Broadcasting

Article

May 28, 2022

Broadcasting is the transmission of sound messages via radio to an unlimited number of listeners, one of the main means of operational information, mass agitation and propaganda, and education of the population. It is characterized by the transmission of a signal according to the principle "from one to many", that is, to more than one listener, as a rule - according to a predetermined schedule.

History

In 1904, English radio engineer John Fleming invented the first radio tube. It was called the "Fleming valve" for the ability to pass electric current in only one direction. The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers called it "one of the greatest discoveries in the history of electronics" and included it in the list of milestones in the development of electrical engineering. In 1906, the Austrian scientist Robert von Lieben patented the first triode - a vacuum tube that controls the current in an electrical circuit. By the early 1920s, the development of radio tubes had reached a level sufficient for the advent of radio broadcasting. While most experimenters tried to create something similar to telephone technology (only two devices can exchange information), others tried to achieve a wider broadcast coverage. The first experimental radio station was created by Charles Herrold in 1909 in San Jose, California. Herrold placed the transmitter and antenna on the roof of his radio engineering college. Initially, only dots and dashes (Morse code characters) were transmitted. In 1912, weekly broadcasts of phonograph records began. In 1921, a license was issued to the radio station, the name was changed to KQW (since 1949 - KCBS). On November 6, 1919, the first broadcasting station in Europe, PCGG, was founded in The Hague (Holland). Evening programs were broadcast once or twice a week. Despite the remoteness of the transmitter from England, the radio station had a large number of listeners on the English side of the English Channel. The term "broadcasting" was introduced by I. G. Freiman and became widely used in Soviet Russia since 1921, when the Radio Engineering Council of the People's Commissariat for Posts and Telegraphs adopted a program that provided for the organization of radio broadcasting through loudspeakers in central cities, in 280 provincial and district centers. By