The Roman Republic (lat. Res publica Populi Romani “The common cause of the people of Rome”) is the historical era of Ancient Rome (509-27 BC) between the kingdom and the empire. The state-political system of the Republic combined democratic, oligarchic and monarchical (in the traditions of the previous tsarist era) elements.
Periodization of the history of the Roman Republic
Early Republic (509-287 BC)
Classical (Middle) Republic (287-133 BC)
Late Republic (133-27 BC)
History of the Roman Republic
Origins of the Republic
The most ancient territory that belonged to the Romans was not large: the priests of the "field brotherhood" (fratres arvales), which existed even in the era of the kings, annually made a solemn tour of the Roman field during the festival of barns, and this tour obviously coincided with the ancient border of Roman territory; it extended 5 Roman miles (1000 paces) on the right bank of the Tiber or to the west, 6 miles on the left bank of the river (to the east), 5 miles to the south, towards Alba Longa, and 2 miles to the north. After the absorption by Rome of several suburban communities and the conquest - back in the tsarist era - of the cities of Gabia and Fidena, the Roman territory (ager Romanus) was equal to approximately 870 km². Under the last kings, the Romans managed to establish several colonies (Signia and the port of Circe), control the mouth of the Tiber with its salt mines, and also throw a bridge over the river. The conquests were accompanied by the founding of colonies. In the south, the Romans relied on their tribal and allied federation of Latin cities; in the north, powerful Etruscan cities ruled by kings opposed Rome, which constituted a weak form of federation; in the east there was enmity with kindred mountain tribes: the Sabines, Volsci and Equii, who made raids on the fertile Roman Campagna. At first, being an ordinary city in Italy, by the end of the royal era, Rome occupied a dominant position in Latium, which could not but affect relations with the Latins. From the founding of the Republic to the complete conquest of Italy, 240 years passed. The first half of this era was spent in small skirmishes with neighbors. The middle of this era is marked by the Roman conquest of the city of Veii (396 BC). The power of Rome after this was greatly shaken