Rhythm (lat. Rhythmus, ancient Greek ῥυθμός, from ancient Greek ῥέω - to flow, flow, spread, etc.) - the organization of music in time. The rhythmic structure of a musical composition is formed by a sequence of durations - sounds and pauses. In the written tradition, musical rhythm is recorded using notation.
A regular rhythm is immanently inherent in man as a living organism, it manifests itself in the perception of space and time, in such processes as heartbeat and breathing, the change of day and night, the alternation of the seasons. A regular musical rhythm is inherent in dance music all over the world, professional (composer) music in Europe starting from the school of Notre Dame and later until the middle of the 20th century, in traditional music of the East - many genres of the makamo-mugham tradition, Indian classical music, most genres of popular music of the East and the West, jazz, etc.
The rhythm of a particular piece of music is extremely diverse and is never formed by durations of the same size. Temporal relationships arise between durations of different magnitudes. The numerical ratios of durations and pauses in music can be either multiple (adjacent durations in a given series of durations are expressed by ratios 1: 2, 1: 3, etc.), or non-multiple (1: 1.5), and even loosely fixed, "Irrational" (as in the musical recitation of the old Saeta or in Schönberg's Sprechgesang).
When combined, sounds and pauses can form the rhythmic pattern of a piece of music. Stable, schematic groupings of durations in the history of music formed rhythm formulas, which took the place of the most important marker of genre and style, just as in millennial monodic cultures (for example, in the znamenny chant and in the Gregorian chant) the melodic formula was the most important marker of mode. In addition to rhythm formulas shared by the community of composers and listeners (for example, the formula of the Italian Sicilian, Spanish bolero, Polish polonaise, etc.), the history of music knows individual “rhythmic projects” that are characteristic of individual works of individual composers, as in the prelude “Steps on Snow ”by C. Debussy,“ Revolutionary Etude ”by F. Chopin, the final of the Seventh