Romania

Article

May 22, 2022

Romania (Rom. România [romɨˈni.a]) is a state in Southeastern Europe, partly located in the northeastern part of the Balkan Peninsula. In the southeast it is washed by the waters of the Black Sea. It borders Ukraine in the north, Moldova in the east, Hungary in the northwest, Serbia in the west and Bulgaria in the south. Territory area - 238,391 km², population - more than 19,401,000 people. (2019 est.) (largest country in the region for both measures); ranks 62nd in the world in terms of population and 80th in terms of territory. The country is distinguished by significant ethno-cultural diversity; Most of the believers (about 87% of the population) profess Orthodoxy. It is subdivided into 42 administrative-territorial units, 41 of which are counties, and 1 is the municipality of Bucharest, equated to a county. The capital is Bucharest. The official language is Romanian. Romania is a unitary state and a presidential-parliamentary republic. The presidency is Klaus Iohannis and the prime minister is Nicolae Chuca. An industrial country with a dynamically developing economy. The monetary unit is the Romanian lei (the exchange rate as of January 10, 2019 is 4.05 lei per 1 US dollar, the value of 1 US dollar in new Romanian lei for the year (365 days) increased by +0.19 lei, from 3.88 to 4.05 RON). Romania arose in 1859 as a result of the unification of two principalities - Moldavia and Wallachia. The independence of the United Principality, which was succeeded by the new state of Romania, was proclaimed on May 21, 1877. Member of the EU since January 1, 2007 and NATO since March 29, 2004.

Name etymology

The name of the country comes from lat. romanus "Roman" and literally means "Country of the Romans".

Physico-geographical characteristic

Geographic location

Romania covers an area of ​​238,391 km² and is the largest country in Southeast Europe by area and the 12th largest country in all of Europe. The country is located between 43° and 49° north latitude, and 20° and 30° east longitude. The territory of Romania is characterized by an approximately equal combination of mountainous, hilly and flat areas. Through the entire territory of the country, from the border with Ukraine to the border with Serbia, are the Carpathians, which prevail in the center of Romania, with 14 mountain ranges. The highest point in Romania is Mount Mo