Russian language


October 17, 2021

The Russian language ([ˈruskʲɪi̯ jɪˈzɨk] listen) is the language of the East Slavic group of the Slavic branch of the Indo-European language family, the national language of the Russian people. It is one of the most widespread languages ​​in the world - the sixth among all the languages ​​of the world in terms of the total number of speakers and the eighth in terms of the number of those who speak it as a mother tongue. Russian is also the most spoken Slavic language and the most spoken language in Europe - geographically and in terms of the number of native speakers. Russian is the official language of the Russian Federation, one of the two official languages ​​of Belarus, one of the official languages ​​of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and some other countries, the main language of international communication in Central Eurasia, Eastern Europe, the countries of the former Soviet Union, one of the six working languages UN, UNESCO and other international organizations. The number of Russian speakers in Russia is 137.5 million (2010). In total, about 260 million people speak Russian in the world (2014). The phonological structure of the Russian language is characterized by a historically complicated system of consonantism, which includes 37 consonant phonemes, and a less complex system of vocalism, which includes 5 or 6 vowel phonemes. At the same time, both in the vowel system and in the consonant system, there is a wide variety of positional modifications. In particular, vowels in an unstressed position are weakened and in some cases do not differ. The stress in the Russian language is dynamic, variegated and mobile. According to the morphological structure, the Russian language is predominantly inflectional, synthetic. The grammatical meaning of tokens is conveyed, as a rule, using inflections. Each inflection usually expresses several meanings at the same time. Along with synthetic forms, the development of elements of analyticism is also observed in the Russian language. The syntax of the Russian language is characterized by a relatively free word order, the opposition of one-component and two-component structures of simple sentences, the presence of three types of complex sentences, the active role of intonation means. The lexical composition of the Russian language is fundamentally Russian. Vocabulary replenishment tools - the formation of words p�

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