Saxophone

Article

July 3, 2022

Saxophone (fr. Saxophone) is a reed wind musical instrument, according to the principle of sound extraction, belonging to the family of reed woodwind musical instruments. The family of saxophones was designed in 1842 by the Belgian musical master Adolphe Sax and patented by him four years later. Since the middle of the 19th century, the saxophone has been used in a brass band, less often in a symphony, also as a solo instrument accompanied by an orchestra (ensemble). It is one of the main instruments of jazz and related genres, as well as pop music. The instrument has a full and powerful sound, melodious timbre and great technical mobility.

History of the instrument and its role in music

Classical music

The invention of the saxophone dates back to the early 1840s. At this time, Sachs, who worked in his father's music workshop in Dinant and had already received several patents, was looking for ways to eliminate intonation discrepancies between wood and brass instruments of brass bands, fill in the timbre space between them and replace bulky and imperfect bass ophicleides. It was under the name "mouthpiece ophicleid" that the new instrument was first presented at the Brussels Industrial Exhibition in August 1841. This instrument had a metal conical body, a mouthpiece with a single reed (borrowed almost unchanged from the clarinet), a system of ring valves by Theobald Boehm, but at the same time it had a “serpentine” (twisted) shape. In 1842, Sachs arrived in Paris, where he also planned to promote his new invention. On June 12, the composer Hector Berlioz, Sax's friend and musical innovator, publishes an article in the Parisian Journal des Debats about a new instrument, to which he first applies the name "saxophone", which soon became widespread. Berlioz also became the author of the first composition with the participation of the saxophone - Chorale for voice and six wind instruments, in which, in addition to the saxophone, other instruments designed or improved by Sax (for example, the bass clarinet) were used. February 3, 1844 the composer himself conducted this work, and in December the saxophone for the first time