St. John's (Newfoundland and Labrador)

Article

August 20, 2022

St. John's (Eng. St. John's, MPA: [ˌseɪntˈdʒɒnz]) is a city in Canada, the capital and largest city of the province of Newfoundland and Labrador. Population - 106,172 people (2011), with suburbs - about 200 thousand. This is the second largest city on the Atlantic coast of Canada after Halifax. Included in the 1st census area of ​​the province. The city has a monument to the Portuguese navigator Gaspar Cortereal.

History

Legends say that this city got its name in honor of the baptized Jew from Italy Giovanni Caboto (Italian Giovanni Caboto, c. John the Baptist. However, the exact location of Cabot's descent to earth is debatable. St. John's is considered one of the oldest English settlements in North America, the first inhabitants settled here back in the 1500s, about ten years after the discovery of America by Columbus, although for another century almost all (and sometimes all) residents left the city for the winter, when the fishing season ends. The first mention of the city is found on a sea map drawn in 1519 by the Portuguese cartographer Pedro Reinel. On August 5, 1583, the English explorer Humphrey Gilbert proclaimed Newfoundland a possession of the British Empire and tried to establish a permanent settlement on the site of the current St. John's. On the way back to the mother country, Gilbert's ship perished along with him near the Azores, which delayed the start of colonization for several decades. By 1620, almost the entire west coast of Newfoundland was under the control of English fishermen, and as their numbers increased, St. John's gradually turned into a real city with a permanent population. However, until the middle of the 18th century, the population of the city in winter and summer (at the height of the fishing season) differed several times. In 1665 and 1673 the city was attacked by the Dutch, but the inhabitants were able to repulse the attacks. The defensive structures built after that did not help the British to keep St. John's in 1696, when it was captured and partially destroyed by the French under the command of Admiral Pierre Lemoine. The city was quickly restored and withstood the siege of the French in 1705, but in 1708 again