Creation of the State of Israel
The creation of the State of Israel (Hebrew הקמת מדינת ישראל [Hakamat Medinat Yisrael]) is a political process that began with the advent of the political Zionist movement in 1897 and ended after the proclamation of its independence on May 14, 1948, with the victory in the War of Independence and the adoption at the UN by mid-1949.
The creation of Israel was dictated by the centuries-old desire of the Jews to revive the national home in their historical homeland and mass persecution, which urgently demanded a politically guaranteed asylum for the Jewish people.
The main stages of the state-building process were the emergence of the Zionist movement, the Balfour Declaration, the British Mandate for Palestine, the UN plan for the partition of Palestine, and the War of Independence.
Among the Jews living in the Diaspora, there has always been a strong desire to return to their historical homeland. The persecution of Jews in Europe, which began during the era of the "Crusades", contributed to the emigration of European Jews to the Holy Land. After the Alhambra Decree of 1492, this flow was significantly replenished by Spanish Jews who founded the Jewish community of Safed.
The desire to create their own state was stimulated by mass anti-Semitism and persecution of Jews. The problem of a national Jewish state was discussed already in the 18th century, not only by Jews, but also by the prominent British philosopher and politician Edmund Burke. He noted, speaking in parliament in 1781, that the reason for the plight of the Jews was the lack of their own state instruments that could serve to protect them - governments, armies, diplomats, etc., unlike, for example, the Dutch or the British. Burke believed that other nations, in this regard, should provide Jews with special protection and patronage. However, as Yoram Hanani notes, this idea turned out to be utopian.
The American Democrat Mordechai Noah tried to establish a Jewish state on Grand Island within the state of New York (1825), where he purchased a 2,555-acre parcel of land. Appointing himself "judge and ruler" of Israel, Noah issued a proclamation announcing the founding of the Jewish kingdom in