August 20, 2022

Treblinka (German Treblinka) - two concentration camps: Treblinka-1 (the so-called "labor camp") and Treblinka-2 (death camp). The camps were organized by the Nazis on the territory of the General Government (occupied Poland), near the village of Treblinka (Mazowieckie Voivodeship), located 80 km northeast of Warsaw. The Treblinka-2 death camp existed from July 22, 1942 to October 1943. According to various estimates, from 750 to 810 thousand people were killed in the camp (there were more victims only in the Auschwitz 2 camp located near the Polish city of Oswiecim, the most famous now death camp). The vast majority of the victims (99.5%) were Jews from Poland, about 2 thousand were gypsies.

History of the camp

The order to build the Treblinka extermination camp was given by the Reichsführer-SS Heinrich Himmler to Arpad Wiegand, head of the Warsaw District SS, on April 17, 1942. Construction of the camp began at the end of May 1942. The territory of the camp was 24 hectares, it was surrounded by a double fence 3 meters high, as well as a moat 3 meters deep. The first 3 gas chambers with an area of ​​48 m² were built according to the same principle as in the Sobibor death camp. On July 22, 1942, the deportation of Jews from the Warsaw ghetto and the eastern districts of the Warsaw region to the Treblinka-I camp began. In August-October 1942, ten additional gas chambers with a total area of ​​320 m² were built. The camp staff consisted of 30 SS members and about 100 Wachmans - Germans, Ukrainians, Lithuanians, Bulgarians, Poles, Russian residents of the Asian Soviet republics. Most of the guards consisted of captured former soldiers of the Red Army.[specify]At present, Polish historians are creating a list of those responsible for the murders in Treblinka. Treblinka survivor Samuel Willenberg said in an interview that the guards consisted of "SS" men (SS) and mostly Ukrainians, with the Germans "kept apart from the Ukrainians and also followed them. They could not be left without control, so that they did not steal anything of value in the camp and did not establish contacts with the prisoners. Until the last moment, they concealed from the victims that death awaited them. This made it possible in most cases to prevent acts of resistance. Many Jews from Western and Central