Turkey

Article

October 28, 2021

Turkey (Turkish Türkiye [ˈtyr̝cije]), officially the Republic of Turkey (Turkish Türkiye Cumhuriyeti [ˈtyr̝cije dʒumˈhuːɾijeti]) is a state in Western Asia (97%) and in Southern Europe (3%). Population - 83.6 million people. (2021), the area of ​​the territory is 783,562 km² (it ranks 19th in the world in terms of population and 36th in terms of territory). Unitary state. The state language is Turkish. Turkey has 14 borders. Modern Turkey was formed in 1923 as a result of the collapse of the Ottoman Empire after its defeat in the First World War and the ensuing national liberation war of the Turkish people, the abolition of the monarchy and the creation of a Turkish national state on the territory of eastern Thrace, Asia Minor and the Armenian Highlands. Before becoming the center of the Ottoman Empire, this region throughout history constituted a significant part of the ancient states: the Hittite kingdom, Assyria, Urartu, Armenia, Byzantium, Georgia (Colchis and Iberia), Persia, Rome, etc. An industrial country with a dynamically developing economy. The volume of GDP at purchasing power parity (PPP) per capita - 19 610 dollars per year (2014). In 2014, Turkey's GDP at par was $ 806 billion; PPP GDP - $ 1508 billion; the volume of GDP at par per capita is 10,482 dollars per year. Member of NATO since 1952, of the Council of Europe since 1949, and also an official candidate for membership in the European Union since 1999.

Etymology

The name "Turkey" (Tur. Türkiye), applied to the modern Republic of Turkey, comes from the Old French Turquie, which, in turn, comes from the medieval Latin forms Turchia, Turquia and Greek - Greek. Τουρκία. The Ottoman Empire, which existed in 1299-1922, was also usually called Turkey or the Turkish Empire among its contemporaries. The Russian name of the country - "Turkey" - was formed through the Polish Turcja from the Novolatinsk Turcia.

Geography

Turkey is located in the eastern hemisphere. Its area (including inland water bodies) is 779,452 km². Part of the territory of Turkey - 97% - is located in Asia and 3% - in Europe. The main core of the territory of Turkey is the peninsula of Asia Minor, which it occupies entirely. The European possessions of Turkey are called Rumelia. Geographical feature of Turkey - location at the crossroads �

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