Fascism

Article

July 6, 2022

Fascism (Italian fascismo, from fascio - union, bundle, bundle, association; fascio di combattimento - union of struggle) is an ideology and socio-political movement within the framework of authoritarian or totalitarian militaristic ultranationalism and the corresponding dictatorial regime with strict regulation of society and the economy. The characteristic features of fascism are also anti-liberalism, the rejection of electoral democracy, social democracy, anti-communism, revanchism and leaderism, expansionism, elitism, social Darwinism, statism and, in some cases, corporatism and racism and the policy of genocide. He occupies the far right of the traditional left-right political spectrum. The first fascist movements originated in Italy during World War I and then spread to other European countries. The Nazis saw World War I as a revolution that brought massive changes to the nature of war and the state. Total war and total mass permanent mobilization destroyed the differences between the civilian population and the direct participants in hostilities. A militarized state has emerged, capable of mobilizing millions of people into the army and ensuring the production of weapons and other resources. It turned out that all citizens were in one way or another involved in the war. The fascists considered the full mobilization of society under a totalitarian state necessary to prepare the nation for armed conflict and effectively respond to economic difficulties. A fascist state is headed by a strong leader (for example, a dictator) and the government operates under martial law or close to it, which ensures the strengthening of national unity and maintaining stability in society. Fascism rejects claims that violence is a priori negative, and views political violence and war as means that can bring about national development and prosperity. In the economy, they usually strive to achieve autarky (economic self-sufficiency), for which protectionism and state economic intervention are actively used. The extreme authoritarianism and nationalism of fascism give rise to