Philip IV (King of France)
Philip IV the Beautiful (fr. Philippe IV le Bel, April 8 / June 1268, Fontainebleau - November 29, 1314, Fontainebleau) - King of France from 1285, King of Navarre 1284-1305, son of Philip III the Bold, from the Capetian dynasty.
The reign of Philip the Fair (1285-1314) played an important role in the decline of the political power of the feudal lords and the strengthening of monarchism in France. He continued the work of his father and grandfather, but the conditions of his era, the peculiarities of the character and intrigues of court advisers at times led to the manifestation of aggression and cruelty in the king's policy. Philippe's reign strengthened France's influence in Europe. Many of his actions, from the war with Flanders to the execution of the Templars, were aimed at replenishing the country's budget and strengthening the army.
Litigation with the English king
Philip's advisers, brought up in the spirit of the traditions of Roman law, always tried to find a legal basis for the king's demands and harassment and clothed the most important diplomatic disputes in the form of legal proceedings. Philip's entire reign is filled with quarrels, "processes", diplomatic litigation of the most shameless nature.
So, having confirmed the possession of Guyenne for the King of England Edward I, Philip, after a series of cavils, summoned him to court, knowing that Edward, who was at that time at war with the Scots, could not appear. Edward, fearing war with Philip, sent an embassy to him and for forty days allowed him to occupy Guyenne. Philip occupied the duchy and did not want to leave it, on condition. Diplomatic negotiations began, which led to the outbreak of hostilities; but in the end Philip gave Guyenne so that the English king would still swear an oath to him and recognize himself as his vassal. This happened in 1295-1299. Military operations against England ended because the allies of the British, the Flemings, pursuing their interests, began to disturb the north of the kingdom. To consolidate peace with England, Philip gave his daughter Isabella to the English king Edward II, the son of Edward I.
War of Flanders
Philip IV managed to win over the Flemish urban population; the count of Flanders was left almost alone before the invading French army and was captured, and Flanders was annexed to France. In the same year 1301, unrest began among the conquered