August 11, 2022

Photography is a technology for recording an image by detecting optical radiation using a photosensitive photographic material or a semiconductor converter. Unlike some other languages, in Russian the word "photo" is used only in relation to static images. At the same time, in professional cinematography, this term refers to the visual solution of the film created by the cameraman. Photographs are also called final prints of a photographic image made on photographic paper by a chemical process or by a printer. Photographic art is based on photography technologies, which is considered one of the fine arts and occupies a key place in modern mass culture. The first permanent photographic image was created in 1822 by the French inventor Joseph Nicéphore Niépce, but it has not survived to this day. According to the decision of the IX International Congress of Scientific and Applied Photography, the technology was invented on January 7, 1839, when Francois Arago made a report on daguerreotype at a meeting of the French Academy of Sciences. The person who takes pictures is called a photographer. In most cases, he also performs all other stages of creating a photographic image, but often the technical part of the work is performed by photolaborators, retouchers, photo editors and representatives of other professions. In professional studio photography, the photographer delegates some duties to his assistants.


The term “photography” itself (French photographie from ancient Greek φῶς (genus p. φωτός) “light” and γράφω “I write”; light painting is a technique of drawing with light) appeared in 1839, it was used simultaneously and independently by two astronomers - English, John Herschel, and German, Johann von Medler. In the Russian Empire, the literal translation “light painting” of the same term was used for quite a long time, but it eventually gave way to the generally accepted one.

History of photography

The invention of photography was made possible by the combination of several discoveries made long before. The ancient Chinese philosopher Mo Tzu described the action of a camera obscura back in the 5th century BC. Possibly,