French

Article

November 28, 2021

French (self-name - le français, la langue française) is the language of the French (the official language of France). One of the official languages ​​of the French-speaking population of Belgium, Switzerland (mainly in Romandy) and Canada (mainly in Quebec). The population of many states of Africa, the Caribbean (Haiti and others), French Guiana uses the French language, including as an official language. Belongs to the Indo-European family of languages ​​(Italian branch, Romance group, Gallo-Romance subgroup). It developed from folk Latin and went further from it than any other Romance language. Writing based on the Latin alphabet. One of the official languages ​​of the United Nations and UNESCO. French is the official language of a large number of international organizations and one of the most studied as a foreign language. According to the international organization "Francophonie", the number of people who can actually speak French is about 274 million.

History

See: Old French, Middle French. The process that determined the development of vernacular colloquial Latin into a special French language took the era from the 6th to the 8th centuries. The earliest surviving texts in Old French are the Strasbourg Oaths (842) and the Sequence of Saint Eulalia (late 9th century). Middle French was heavily influenced by Classical Latin. In connection with the conquest of England by the Normans in 1066, French (in such forms as Anglo-Norman, French the legal language) took root in England for three centuries as the language of the nobility. French was also the common language of the various crusaders and became the language of the crusader states in the Middle East. In the XII-XIII centuries, the French language was spread in the court circles of Germany, Flanders and the Netherlands. At the end of the 13th century, some Italian writers wrote in French, in particular in French Marco Polo wrote a famous essay about his travels. The Ordinance of Ville-Cotrets in 1539 consolidated the status of the French language as a single state language in France and obliged the local administration to rely on its Parisian norm instead of Latin when drawing up all administrative documents. An important milestone in the history of the language -

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