August 13, 2022

Kharkiv (ukr. Kharkiv) is the second most populous city in Ukraine, an important industrial and scientific center of the country, the center of the Kharkiv region, the Kharkiv region and the Kharkiv urban community. From March 6, 2022 Hero City of Ukraine. The modern city was founded by decree of the Russian Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich in 1654 on the site of an ancient settlement, sometimes identified as the 11th-century Polovtsian city of Sharukan or the 5th-century Hunnic city of Kharka. From 1660 to 1665 the administrative center of the Sloboda Cossack regiments, from December 1917 to January 1918 the capital of the Ukrainian People's Republic of Soviets, in February - March 1918 the capital of the Donetsk-Krivoy Rog Soviet Republic, in March - June 1919 and from December 19, 1919 June 24, 1934 - the capital of the Ukrainian Socialist Soviet Republic. The city has 142 research institutes, 45 higher education institutions, including Kharkiv University, which is in the top 500 universities in the world and the Polytechnic Institute, which is in the top 1000; 16 museums, city art gallery, 6 state theatres, 80 libraries. In the USSR, it was the largest center of tank, tractor, turbine building and the third largest industrial, scientific and transport center. In the second half of the 20th century it was the main transport hub of Eastern Europe. He was awarded the Orders of Lenin (1970) and the Order of the October Revolution (1983), as well as awards from the Council of Europe (2003-2010). In 2013, the Kharkiv city council awarded the city the title of "city of military glory". He has a full set of Council of Europe awards: Diploma (2003), Honorary Flag (2004), European Table (2008) and European Prize (2010). In 2012, it was one of the four cities in Ukraine that hosted the 2012 European Football Championship. The local self-government body is the Kharkiv City Council. In 2022, for "feat, mass heroism and steadfastness of citizens <...> during the repulse of the armed aggression of the Russian Federation against Ukraine" he was awarded the title Hero City of Ukraine.


Various dates for the founding of the modern city on the site of the ancient Kharkov settlement are proposed - from 1630 to 1655. In the 18th century, a certain mythical Cossack of the 16th - early 17th centuries (or even the 18th century) Kharko was considered the founder of the city. However, already in the 19th century, the version about the foundation of the city to