Holocaust (from the English holocaust, from ancient Greek ὁλοκαύστος - "burnt offering"):
In a broad sense, the persecution and mass destruction by the Nazis of representatives of various ethnic and social groups (Soviet prisoners of war, Poles, Jews, Gypsies, homosexual men, Freemasons, hopelessly sick and disabled people, etc.) during the existence of Nazi Germany (see Nazi racial policy) ...
In a narrow sense - the persecution and mass extermination of Jews who lived in Germany, on the territory of its allies and in the territories occupied by them during the Second World War; the systematic persecution and extermination of European Jews by Nazi Germany and collaborators during 1933-1945. Along with the Armenian genocide in the Ottoman Empire, it is one of the most famous examples of genocide in the 20th century.
Etymology of the word
The English word "holocaust" is borrowed from the Latin Bible (where it is used in the Latinized form holocaustum, along with holocau (s) toma and holocaustosis), in which it, in turn, comes from Greek and biblical forms ὁλόκαυ (σ) τος, ὁλόκαυ (σ) τον "whole burnt", "burnt offering, burnt offering", ὁλοκαύτωμα "burnt offering", ὁλοκαύτωσις "burnt offering"; in Russian it was used in the forms "olokaust" and "olokaustum" ("Gennadievskaya Bible", 1499), in Kurganov's "Writer" (18th century) the form of holocaust was used with the interpretation of "sacrifice, burnt offering".
For the first time this word (in the form of holocaustum) was used by the English chronicler of the second half of the 12th century, Richard of Devises, when describing the Jewish pogrom that began in London after the coronation of Richard the Lionheart at Westminster on September 3, 1189.
In the open English press, the term "holocaust" in close to its present meanings has been used since the 1910s (originally in relation to the Armenian genocide in the Ottoman Empire and the Jewish pogroms during the Civil War in Russia), and in the modern meaning of the extermination of Jews by the Nazis - since 1942 of the year. It became widespread in the 1950s thanks to the books of the future Nobel Peace Prize laureate writer Elie Wiesel. Appears in the Soviet press in the early 1980s, initially in the form of a "holocaust", later in its current form, imitating