Ayala, Juan de


August 11, 2022

Juan Manuel de Ayala (Ayala) (Spanish Juan Manuel de Ayala; December 28, 1745, Osuna, Seville province - December 30, 1797) - Spanish naval officer, explorer. Discoverer of Alcatraz Island in San Francisco Bay (now California, USA).


At the age of fourteen he entered the service in the Royal Spanish Navy (September 1760) and in 1782 he rose to the rank of captain. In the early 1770s, Spain was exploring the northern coast of California to ascertain if there were any Russian settlements on the California coast and to explore the area of ​​the future San Francisco. Expeditions were equipped to establish Spanish rule over these areas. Manuel de Ayala, then a lieutenant, was one of those who went on a naval expedition. In August 1774, he arrived on the coast of America in Santa Cruz. He played an important role in the development of California. Aboard the USS San Carlos, he and his crew were the first Europeans entering the San Francisco Bay. On August 5, 1775, Juan Manuel de Ayala, commanding the ship "San Carlos", entered San Francisco Bay through the Golden Gate. Anchored in a sheltered bay, he spent the next six weeks surveying, sounding and mapping the bay. The island in the bay was named by him "La Isla de Nuestra Señora de los Angeles" ("Island of Our Lady of the Angels") (now Angel). On August 12, 1775, on his orders, a map of the bay and another island was drawn up, to which he gave the name La Isla de los Alcatraces (Spanish: La Isla de los Alcatraces - the island of boobies), one of the three islands, currently known as Yerba Buena. . In 1850, the thirteenth US President Millard Fillmore signed an executive order on the use of the island for military purposes. A fortress was built, and about a hundred cannons were placed around the perimeter of the island to protect the San Francisco Bay. At that time, the first lighthouse on the west coast appeared on the island on March 14, 1785, he retired with a full pension in connection with his successful actions in California.



Juan Manuel de Ayala, 1775. The First Spanish Ship Through the Golden Gate