January 24, 2022

Mark Tullius Cicero (lat. Marcus Tullius Cicero; January 3, 106 BC, Arpinum, Roman Republic - December 7, 43 BC, Formii, Roman Republic) - Roman politician of the republican period, orator, philosopher , scientist. Being from an humble family, he made a brilliant career thanks to his oratorical talent: he entered the Senate from 73 BC. e. and became consul in 63 BC. e. Played a key role in uncovering and defeating the Catiline conspiracy. Later, in the conditions of civil wars, he remained one of the most prominent and most consistent supporters of the preservation of the republican system. He was executed by members of the second triumvirate, who aspired to unlimited power. Cicero left an extensive literary heritage, a significant part of which has survived to this day. Already in antiquity, his works gained a reputation as a reference in terms of style, and now they are the most important source of information about all aspects of life in Rome in the 1st century BC. e. Numerous letters of Cicero became the basis for European epistolary culture; his speeches, especially catilinaria, are among the most outstanding examples of the genre. The philosophical treatises of Cicero are a unique exposition of the whole of ancient Greek philosophy, intended for Latin-speaking readers, and in this sense they played an important role in the history of ancient Roman culture.



Marcus Tullius Cicero was the eldest son of a Roman horseman of the same name, whose poor health did not allow him to make a career, and his wife Helvia - "a woman of good origin and an impeccable life." His brother was Quintus, with whom Mark Tullius maintained a close relationship throughout his life, his cousin was Lucius Tullius Cicero, who accompanied his cousin on his journey to the East in 79 BC. e. The Tullian family belonged to the aristocracy of Arpin, a small city in the Volsci lands in the south of Latium, whose inhabitants had Roman citizenship since 188 BC. e. Gaius Marius, who was in property with Tullia, also came from here: Cicero's grandfather was married to Gratidia, whose brother married his sister Maria. Thus, Gaius' nephew Mark Marius Gratidianus was C�

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