Zurich

Article

August 11, 2022

Zurich (German Zürich [ˈtsyːrɪç]; Swiss Züri [tsy:ri], French Zurich, Italian Zurigo) is a city in northern Switzerland. The capital of the German-speaking canton of Zurich and the administrative center of the district of the same name. With a population of 428 thousand people (as of the end of 2018), Zurich is the largest city in the country. More than 1.3 million people live within the agglomeration. Located on the shores of Lake Zurich at the source of the Limmat River, in the valley between the mountains Uetliberg and Zurichberg. Zurich is included in the category of global cities and is the largest financial center in Switzerland, which houses the headquarters of many insurance companies and banks, including the international UBS and Credit Suisse, the Swiss Stock Exchange and one of the headquarters of the Swiss Central Bank. Large scientific center: university and higher technical school. In 2019, Zurich ranked second in the world in terms of quality of life and fourth in the list of the most expensive cities in the world. The Romanesque-Gothic cathedrals of Grossmunster, Fraumunster and St. Peter's Church rise above the historic center. On the banks of the Limmat is the city hall, built in 1694-1698. As a city, it was first mentioned in 929. In the XIII-XVII centuries it was an imperial city. In 1351 he joined the Swiss Union. In the 16th century it became the center of the Reformation led by Zwingli. In the 2nd half of the 19th century it became the financial center of the country.

History

In ancient times, a Celtic-Germanic settlement existed on the site of Zurich, after the arrival of the Romans in the 1st century BC. e. received the Roman name Turicum (lat. Turicum). During the era of the Roman Empire, Turicum was used by the Romans as a customs post on the border between Rezia and Belgica. Louis II of Germany, the ruler of the East Frankish kingdom, built a castle on the site of Turicum (in castro Turicino iuxta fluvium Lindemaci), and in 853 founded Fraumünster Abbey for his daughter Hildegard in the surrounding lands. In the middle of the 11th century, the Holy Roman Emperor Henry III expanded the rights of the local abbey (including allowing him to mint his own coin), effectively making the abbess the head of the city. In 1218, Zurich received the status of an imperial city and became subordinate not to the feudal lord, but directly to the emperor. The city wall was built in the 1230s. In 1234 Frederick II of Hohensch