Edinburgh (English and scots. Edinburgh [ˈɛdɪnb (ʌ) rə], Gaelic. Dùn Èideann [tuːn ˈeːtʃən]) is the capital of Scotland (since 1437) and its second largest city.
The county seat of the City of Edinburgh. The population of Edinburgh in 2019 was 524.9 thousand people. It is the seventh largest city in the United Kingdom. Located on the east coast of Scotland in the Lowlands, on the southern shore of the Firth of Forth. Edinburgh's Old Town and New Town districts were designated by UNESCO as World Heritage Sites in 1995.
Since the 6th century, it has been known as the castle-fortress of the British royal family of Eidyn. At the beginning of the 7th century, the castle was captured by the Angles, who added burh - "castle, fortress" to its family name, forming Eidynburh - "Eidin castle".
Edinburgh is famous for its picturesque location on three coastal hills, spurs of the Pentland Hills, between the Leith River and Mount Arthur's Throne (251 m), which descends steep slopes to the west of Edinburgh (Salisbury Craig). The city center is divided into a southern, old part with very narrow streets, and a new part, which has been built up according to the plan since 1768. The ravine that separates both parts of the city (formerly Loch Nor) has been turned into a park. Edinburgh Castle is located in the center of the city on Castle Rock in the southwest corner of a huge park; the castle offers a picturesque view of the sea and the city. On the eastern edge of the city is the Holyrood Palace.
The largest Scottish city of Glasgow, Edinburgh is 74 km away and London is 648 km away.
The Encyclopedic Dictionary of Brockhaus and Efron indicates Edinburgh, a former Roman military site in Britain - Alata-castra. And the first written mention of the settlement around the fortress as a city dates back to 1124, when the Church of the Holy Cross was founded in Edinburgh by the decree of King David I. The address to the recipients in the royal charter in Latin reads: Ecclisie Sancte Crucis Edwinesburgensi, and this form of the name of the city may indicate that at that time there was a belief in the origin of the name on behalf of King Edwin. Be that as it may, in the charter of King William I the Lion from 1170, another name for the city is mentioned - Edenesbur