nuclear club

Article

January 24, 2022

The nuclear club is a political science cliché, a conventional designation for a group of so-called nuclear powers - states that have developed, produced and tested nuclear weapons.

Nuclear Powers

According to available official data, the following states possess or have possessed nuclear weapons (by year of the first nuclear test or period of possession of weapons): In addition, on the territory of several states that are members of NATO (Germany, Italy, Turkey, Belgium, the Netherlands, Canada) and other allies (presumably officially denied - Japan, South Korea), there are US nuclear weapons. Some experts believe that under certain circumstances, these states can use it. By 1994, Kazakhstan, and by 1996 Ukraine and Belarus, on whose territory part of the nuclear weapons of the USSR was located after the collapse of the Soviet Union, transferred it to Russia in accordance with the Lisbon Protocol signed in 1992. South Africa had its own nuclear weapons, but also voluntarily abandoned them in the early 1990s due to the dismantling of the apartheid regime. The status of the "old" nuclear powers (USA, Great Britain, France, China and Russia), as the only "legitimate" members of the Nuclear Club, at the international legal level follows from the provisions of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons of 1968 - in paragraph 3 of Article IX of this document states: "For the purposes of this Treaty, a nuclear-weapon state is a state that has manufactured and detonated a nuclear weapon or other nuclear explosive device prior to January 1, 1967." In this regard, the UN and these five "old" nuclear powers (they are also great powers as permanent members of the UN Security Council) consider the appearance of the last four "young" (and all possible future) members of the Nuclear Club internationally illegal. The United States carried out the first ever nuclear explosion with a yield of 20 kilotons on July 16, 1945 at the US Air Force training ground in the Alamogordo desert (New Mexico). On August 6 and 9, 1945, nuclear bombs were dropped on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, respectively. The first thermonuclear test (the first in history) was carried out on November 1, 1952 at Eneweto Atoll�

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