South African Republic
July 1, 2022
The Republic of South Africa (JAR for short), officially the Republic of South Africa (South Africa for short), is a country in the extreme south of Africa. It is located on the southern edge of Africa and borders Namibia, Botswana, Zimbabwe, Mozambique and Swaziland. The small country of Lesotho is completely covered by South African territory. The area of South Africa is 1,221,000 km². In terms of area, the Republic of South Africa is the 25th country in the world, and the 9th on the continent. According to the July 2015 estimate, South Africa has a population of 54,960,000. The capital cities of the Republic of South Africa are Pretoria, Bloemfontein and Cape Town, while the largest city is Johannesburg. The oldest inhabitants of South Africa are the Hottentot and Bushman tribes. The Bantu peoples moved in around 1000 AD. In 1652, the Dutch established a colony at the Cape of Good Hope, today's city of Cape Town. In 1795, the British army conquered the Cape of Good Hope and Cape Town. In 1830, the Dutch (Boer) population moved collectively to the north and founded the Boer republics, which were annexed by the British in 1902 after the Second Boer War. In 1910, the British colonies united in the Union of South Africa, which gained independence and withdrew from the Commonwealth in 1961. During the 20th century, the main problem of South Africa was the question of the supremacy of the white population over the black majority. The policy of apartheid was officially introduced in 1948. After years of international pressure and internal discontent, apartheid was abolished in 1990. In the 1994 elections, Nelson Mandela was elected as the first black president of the country. The Republic of South Africa is one of the founding members of the United Nations and the African Union. South Africa's economy is the strongest on the African continent with a modern infrastructure. The main products of the Republic of South Africa are gold and diamonds.