October 18, 2021
Afghanistan (Persian: فغانستان) is a country in southwest Asia. The country has no access to the sea, and the length of the land border is 5,529 km. It borders Iran (936 km) in the west, Turkmenistan (744 km), Uzbekistan (137 km) and Tajikistan (1,206 km) in the north, China (76 km) in the northeast, and Pakistan in the east and south. km). Kabul is the largest and capital of Afghanistan and has about 4.6 million inhabitants. As of August 15, 2021, Afghanistan is de facto under the control of the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan, better known as the Taliban. Archaeologists in the area of today's Afghanistan have found evidence of human presence dating back to the Middle Paleolithic period. It is believed that urban civilization appeared in this territory between 3000 and 2000 BC. n. e. Being located in a very important location that connects the culture of the Middle East with Central Asia and the Indian subcontinent, over the centuries it has been home to various peoples, and has witnessed various military campaigns, most notably the campaign of Alexander the Great, Genghis Khan. , and Western powers in modern times. This country also represents the source from which the Greco-Bactrian kingdom, the kingdom of Kushan, the White Huns (Hephthalites), the Safarids, the Ghaznavids, the Gorids, the Hildis, the Timurids, the Mughals and the Durans raised and built very powerful empires. year, when the Hotaki dynasty was established in Kandahar, after which the Durani Empire rose in 1747. At the end of the 19th century, Afghanistan became a buffer state during the "Great Game" between British India and the Russian Empire. After the Third Anglo-Afghan War in 1919, King Amanullah began the European modernization of his country, but was prevented by ultra-conservatives. She has been a member of the United Nations since 1946. During the Cold War, after the British withdrew from India in 1947, the United States and the Soviet Union began to expand their influence in Afghanistan, leading to a bloody war between US-backed mujahideen ("holy warriors"). and the Soviet-backed government, in which more than a million Afghans lost their lives. This was followed by the Afghan civil war of the 1990s, the rise and fall of extremist Taliban rule and the war in Afghanistan.