Ankara (Tur. Ankara) is the capital of Turkey and the eponymous province. According to estimates from 2009, the city had a population of 3,945,627.
In the Byzantine period, it was known as Ankira (Greek: Ἄγκυρα [Ánkyra], "anchor"). The name Angora was used until 1930. After the proclamation of the Republic of Turkey in 1923, Ankara became the capital instead of Istanbul. Since 1919, Angora has been the seat of the people's government of Mustafa Kemal-pasha Ataturk, who waged a war for the liberation of Turkish territories. In 1923, Kemal Pasha declared Angora the capital of Turkey. In 1930, Angora changed its name to Ankara.
The city consists of the old, northern part, which has preserved its medieval-eastern appearance, and the modern southern part, which was built mainly after 1923.
Like many other ancient cities, Ankara has changed its name several times in its history. It was originally called Ankuvash when it was a Hittite cult center. In the time of Ancient Greece, it was called Ankyra (Greek: Ἄγκυρα [Ánkyra], "anchor"). From Ottoman times after 1073 it became known as Angora. It changed its name in 1930, when it became Ankara by the decision of the Turkish state post office.
Ankara lies in northwestern Turkey, 200 km from the Black Sea coast and 450 km southeast of Istanbul.
The historical center of Ankara is located on a rocky hill 150 m high, on the left bank of the river Ankara, a tributary of the Sakarya.
Ankara has a clean continental climate, with cold snowy winters and warm dry summers. Rains fall in spring and autumn, but on a small scale because in Ankara only 415 mm of precipitation falls on average per year, so according to Kepen's climate classification it almost has a semi-desert climate BSh, BSk
The exact date of the founding of Ankara is still uncertain, archeological findings indicate that it has been inhabited since the Stone Age, as well as the fact that the city was a prosperous Phrygian city from the end of the 2nd millennium BC. n. e ..
Alexander the Great conquered Ankara - 333 BC. n. e., in the 3rd century BC. n. e. the city was the capital of the Tektosaga of a Galatian tribe. From 25. p. n. e. During the reign of Emperor Augustus, Ankara became part of the Roman Empire. During the Byzantine rule, Ankara was the target of attacks by Persians and Arabs. Around 1073, Ankara fell into the hands of the Seljuks, but was crushed by the crusader Raymond of Toulouse.