July 5, 2022

Apartheid (Afr. apartheid) ("separation", "separation", "separate development") was a social system implemented by the ruling white minority in South Africa in the 20th century. This system of racial segregation was introduced as the official policy of the Republic of South Africa after the victory of the Boer Nationalist Party in the 1948 elections. It divided the population of South Africa into whites, blacks, Indians and "coloreds" (mulattoes), with only whites having full political rights. About four-fifths of the national income of the South African Republic was in the hands of one-fifth of the whites. According to statistics — every colored inhabitant of this republic was arrested and interrogated on an average once a year, every one disenfranchised, every second illiterate, every fifth unemployed, every second black boy died before the age of ten. Apartheid, created under the strong influence of racism and Protestant fundamentalism, over time provoked increasingly fierce resistance from the majority black population, and attracted the antipathy of the entire international public to the Republic of Yugoslavia. Under external and internal pressures, apartheid began to be gradually abolished in the 1980s, only to be completely abolished after the year 1994 when Nelson Mandela came to power. In 1993, de Klerk and Mandela were jointly awarded the Nobel Peace Prize "for their work to end the apartheid regime peacefully, and for laying the foundations for a new democratic South Africa". public facilities and social events, and "grand apartheid", which dictated housing and employment opportunities by race. Before the 1940s, some aspects of apartheid had already emerged in the form of the rule of a minority of white South Africans and the enforced social separation of black South Africans from other races, which was later extended by legislation and land distribution. A codified system of racial stratification began to form in South Africa under the Dutch Empire in the late eighteenth century, although informal segregation was present much earlier due to social cleavages between the Dutch colonists and the creolized, ethnically diverse slave population. With rapid growth and industry�