Aztecs

Article

May 28, 2022

The Aztecs were one of the indigenous peoples of the American continent who founded Tenochtitlan, an ancient city on an island in Lake Tescoco (now almost dry) whose geographical location corresponds to where Mexico City is today, and which, with the help of other city-states from the Mexican Valley, Tlakopan and Teškoko, subjugated a large number of other peoples who inhabited the central and southern part of present-day Mexico. The Aztec Empire was destroyed in the 16th century, when Spanish conquistadors arrived in America. The conquest of the Aztec Empire, led by the Spanish conquistador Hernan Cortes, began in 1519 and ended in 1521 with the total destruction of the Aztec state. Today, the Aztecs are an Indian (more precisely, Yuto-Aztec) people who live mostly in Mexico and are mostly of the Catholic faith, but they have also preserved traditional beliefs (belief in spirits, ancestral worship, etc.). They speak the Nahuatl language, which belongs to the Utah-Aztec-Tanoan group of the American language family. There are a total of about 1,652,000 of them.

History

The Aztecs immigrated to the Mexican Valley between 1200 and 1300. In the beginning, they were a small warrior tribe. In 1325, Tenochtitlán was founded. The Aztecs developed a strong military state. In the period from 1427 to 1440, the basic feature of the Aztec people was the conquest of the surrounding cities. In 1432, an alliance was formed between the three Aztec cities-states of Tenoctitlan, Tescoco and Talcopan. In this way, they built a powerful state, which included Mexico, the Yucatan and Guatemala. They conquered all the tribes from those areas, Totonaka, Sapoteka, Mixteka, etc. Thanks to their belligerence, the Aztecs were dominant in Central America. The highest level included warriors of noble origin. Their military code was unusually strict, and the slightest violation was punishable by death. Wars took place quite often and lasted only a few days. The goal was to capture the enemy, not kill him. Capture was a condition for the advance of warriors. In 1473, two twin cities, Tenoctitlan and Tlatelolco, merged together as Mexico, but each had its own square and royal palace. During the reign of Montezuma (1502-1520) the priests prevailed over the nobles and had from