Lake Baikal

Article

January 27, 2022

Lake Baikal (Russian: Озеро Байкал) is located in the eastern part of Asian Russia. It is the deepest lake in the world and the second largest in Asia (right after the Caspian Sea). Administratively, it is located in two areas, in the Irkutsk region and in Buryatia. The name comes from the Tatar bai-kul ', "rich lake" or from the Yakut Bajagal ~ Great Lake. It is also known as the "blue Siberian eye". Due to its depth of 1642 m and large area (31,500 km²), the lake contains over 23,000 km³ of pure fresh water, which is over 20% of the world's freshwater supply. It contains more water than the North American Great Lakes combined. The water transparency of the lake reaches 40.2 meters. There are 27 islands in the lake, the largest of which is Olhon (742 km). It is assumed that the age of Lake Baikal is between 25 and 35 million years. About 336 rivers flow into the lake, which together give it 47.16 km of water per year. The most important of these rivers are the Selenga and the Barguzin. Selenga alone pours 13.92 cubic kilometers of water into the lake, or 29.51%. The mouths of rivers are deltas. However, only one river flows out of the lake - the Angara, 1779 km long, a right tributary of the Yenisei and carries an average of 1920 m³ of water per second. The lake basin area is 557,000 km2 The water of Lake Baikal is used for drinking. In winter, it freezes to a depth of 1 meter and remains frozen from January to May. During the winter, when the entire surface of the lake is covered with a thick ice crust, ice cubes are cut and distributed for sale in the surrounding settlements. Around the lake are mountain ranges between 1180 and 2575 m high, which channel the longitudinal winds on the lake. They are the ruler from the north, and the cult from the south. Verhovnik blows at a speed of about 20 m per second and raises the waves in the south of the lake up to 4.5 m high, while the waves of the cult are up to 3.5 m high in the middle and northern part of the lake. Particularly dangerous for navigation are the winds of the transverse direction, especially the waterfall wind sarma. It blows from the Primorski venac on the western side of the lake, descending through the valley to the bank of the river Sarma, when it reaches a speed between 40 and 50 m per second. It usually spreads on the lake up to 20 km from the shore, because it is still weak, but occasionally it reaches the eastern shores. Sarma raises waves up to five meters in the middle of the lake. An event was recorded that at the end of September 1902, the steamship "Alexander Nevski" towed three barges on which were

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