Plants

Article

January 27, 2022

Plants are mostly multicellular, predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes from the Plantae kingdom. Today, this term is generally limited to green plants, which form the unranked cladus Viridiplantae (Latin for "green plants"). It includes flowering plants, conifers and other gymnosperms, ferns, Lycopodiopsida, Anthocerotophyta, Hepaticae, mosses and green algae, and does not include red and brown algae. Historically, plants were one of two kingdoms that covered all living things other than animals, and algae and fungi were treated as plants; however, all current plant definitions exclude fungi and some algae, as well as prokaryotes (archaea and bacteria). Green is not a taxonomic character to distinguish plants from other organisms - there are green animals (eg sponges, which are also sessile), and there are also plant organisms of other colors, or colorless. The basic characteristics of plants were considered immobility, the presence of a cell wall and the possibility of autotrophy. With the development of biology, such a broad understanding of the concept of plants is slowly being abandoned. By green plants we mean a monophyletic group of plants with chlorophylls a and b, within which we can distinguish two large groups: primarily an aquatic group of green algae, and from them evolved a group of terrestrial plants. Green plants have cellular walls that contain cellulose and receive most of their energy from sunlight through photosynthesis in primary chloroplasts, performed by endosymbiosis with cyanobacteria. Their chloroplasts contain chlorophylls a and b, which give them a green color. Some plants are parasitic and therefore have lost the ability to produce normal amounts of chlorophyll or to perform photosynthesis. This conversion of energy facilitates the binding of inorganic carbon (IV) -oxide into organic compounds - carbohydrates, which are the basic food of organisms (ie, plants are autotrophic organisms). Therefore, it is possible to define plants as photoautotrophic organisms. Plants are characterized by sexual reproduction and generational change, although asexual reproduction is also widespread. There are about 300-315 thousand species of plants, of which the vast majority, some 260-290 thousand, are seedlings (see table below). Green plants produce the most

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