Bulgaria

Article

November 28, 2021

Bulgaria (Bulgarian: България, tr. Bǎlgariya), officially the Republic of Bulgaria (Bulgarian: Република България, tr. Republika Bǎlgariya), is a country in Southeast Europe. It borders Romania to the north, Serbia and Northern Macedonia to the west, Greece and Turkey to the south, and the Black Sea to the east. With a territory of 110,994 km2 (42,855 sq mi), Bulgaria is the 16th largest European country. Organized prehistoric cultures began to develop on current Bulgarian lands during the Neolithic. In antiquity, Thracians, Greeks, Persians, Celts, Romans, Goths, Alans and Huns lived here. The formation of the united Bulgarian state dates back to the founding of the First Bulgarian Empire in 681, which dominated the Balkans and acted as a Slavic cultural center during the Middle Ages. With the fall of the Second Bulgarian Empire in 1396, its territories were under Turkish rule for almost five centuries. The Russo-Turkish war led to the establishment of the third Bulgarian state. In the following years, it waged several wars with its neighbors, which prompted Bulgaria to unite with Germany in both world wars. In 1946, Bulgaria became a one-party socialist state as part of the Soviet Eastern Bloc. In December 1989, Bulgaria's ruling Communist Party allowed multi-party elections, marking Bulgaria's transition to parliamentary democracy and a market economy. Bulgaria's population of 7 million is predominantly urbanized and mainly concentrated in the administrative centers of its 28 districts. Most trade and cultural activities take place in the capital and largest city, Sofia. The most developed sectors of the economy are heavy industry, energy and agriculture, all of which rely on local natural resources. The current political structure of the country dates back to the adoption of the democratic constitution in 1991. Bulgaria is a unitary parliamentary republic with a high degree of political, administrative and economic centralization. It is a member of the European Union, NATO and the Council of Europe, one of the founders of the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe and has been the seat of the United Nations Security Council three times.

Etymology

The name Bulgaria comes from the Proto-Bulgarians, the tribes of Turkish origin who founded the country. Origin

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