January 20, 2022

Wine is an agri-food product, obtained by complete or partial alcoholic fermentation of fresh grapes, stalks or wider than grapes - wine grape varieties. Also, wine can be made from some parts of plants and from various fruits. The natural balance of grapes is such that it can cause fermentation without any addition of sugars, acids, enzymes and other substances that cause fermentation. Wine-like drinks can be produced by fermenting other fruits and flowers: fruit wine, barley wine, rice (sake), honey (mead), and even herbs (Chinese wine). The commercial use of the word wine is protected by law in many countries. Wine has a history of about 8,000 years - it is believed that the first wines originated in today's Georgia or Iran. The science that studies wine is called oenology. Wine is made by squeezing grapes, and the juice obtained by squeezing is called shira. The basis of wine production is the chemical process of fermentation, during which, under the influence of yeasts under anaerobic conditions, various sugars decompose to ethanol, releasing carbon dioxide. The process of fermentation or fermentation usually takes a few weeks, after which the wine is purified and poured into barrels or barrels. In addition to sugar, grape juice contains acids that are also important for the taste of wine. The husk and seeds contain tannins, compounds of astringent taste (like unripe quince) which are natural preservatives, enable the aging of wine and its maturation, and do not allow it to spoil. There are yeast cells on the surface of the grain, but that yeast is usually not enough to make wine - yeast is added during production. Wine has been produced for thousands of years. The earliest known traces of wine come from China (ca. 7000 BC), and Iran (ca. 5000 BC). The earliest known winery is the 6,100-year-old Arena-1 winery in Armenia. The wine reached the Balkans by 4500 BC. n. e. and was consumed and celebrated in ancient Greece, Thrace and Rome. Throughout history, wine has been consumed for its intoxicating effects. Wine has long played an important role in religion. Red wine was associated with blood by the ancient Egyptians. It was used by the Greeks in the cult of Dionysus and the Romans in their Bahanalia; Judaism also incorporated red wine into Kidush, and Christianity�

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