Water

Article

January 23, 2022

Water is a transparent liquid that forms rivers, lakes, oceans and rain. It is the main constituent of the fluid of living beings. As a chemical compound, a water molecule contains one oxygen atom and two hydrogen atoms, which are connected by covalent bonds. Water is a liquid at standard ambient temperature and pressure, although it often occurs on Earth together with its solid state, ice; and in the gaseous state, vapors (water vapor). It also occurs in the form of snow, fog, dew and clouds. Water covers 71% of the Earth's surface. It is vital for all known life forms. On earth, 96.5% of planetary water is in seas and oceans, 1.7% is groundwater, 1.7% is in glaciers and ice caps of Antarctica and Greenland, and a small fraction is in other bodies of water, and 0.001% in air as steam, clouds (formed by ice and liquid water suspended in the air), and precipitation. Only 2.5% of the Earth's water is fresh water, and 98.8% of that water is in ice (except cloud ice) and groundwater. Less than 0.3% of all freshwater is in rivers, lakes, and the atmosphere, and an even smaller amount of Earth's freshwater (0.003%) is contained in biological bodies and industrial products. Water on Earth is constantly moving through the hydrological cycle of evaporation and transpiration (evapotranspiration), condensation, precipitation, and runoff, usually reaching the sea. Evaporation and transpiration contribute to soil precipitation. Water used in the production of goods or services is known as virtual water. Safe drinking water is essential for humans and other life forms, although it does not provide calories or organic nutrients. Access to safe drinking water has improved in recent decades in almost all parts of the world, although approximately one billion people still do not have access to safe drinking water and about 2.5 billion do not have adequate sanitation. There is a clear correlation between access to safe water and gross domestic product per capita. However, some observers estimated that by 2025, more than half of the world's population will be threatened by insufficient access to safe water. A report from November 2009 suggests that by 2030, demand for water will exceed supply by 50% in some developing regions of the world. Water plays an important role in the world economy, as it functions

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