Volcano

Article

November 30, 2021

The volcano is an opening (or rupture) in the Earth's crust, through which molten rock mass (lava), ash and gases are pushed to the surface, where they cool and settle. A volcano is a geological form (usually a mountain, although there are also submarine volcanoes) where lava rises to the surface of the Earth's crust. The word volcano comes from the island of Vulcano in the Tyrrhenian Sea. According to other sources, the word volcano comes from the Roman god Vulcan, the god of fire and volcano. The science that studies volcanoes is called volcanology. From the point of view of determining the geographical position and the description of volcanoes as morphologically formed forms after volcanic eruptions, without the pretensions of entering into the very process of formation and its explanation, volcanoes are dealt with by geography. Volcanoes significantly influence the formation of the Earth's relief. On Earth, they are most commonly encountered at the edges of lithospheric plates. A volcano can be active or inactive, depending on its eruptions and tectonic activity in its vicinity. The most prominent part of the volcano is the ever-increasing volcanic dome. There is a crater at the top of the dome, and the connection between the crater and the volcanic hearth is a volcanic channel. magma mobility and rock melting or due to gases and vapors that increase magma buoyancy. Magma on the Earth's surface is called lava. Lava can erupt to the surface in two ways: By pouring - magma erupts slowly and uniformly, due to which basalt coverings are formed. Examples are the Dean Peninsula, Kamchatka, Iceland. This is a Hawaiian type of volcano. This type of eruption occurs in the case of basic magmas, with a small amount of volatile. Eruption - explosive, caused by a large amount of accumulated gases and water vapor. They were accompanied by earthquakes, and cases of catastrophic consequences for the environment were recorded. (St. Helens in 1980, Krakatoa in 1883, Mont Pele in 1902). This is an Asian type of volcano. It occurs in the case of magma with a lot of volatiles, acid type. In addition to lava, pyroclastic material can also erupt from volcanoes: volcanic bombs - larger pieces of lava that get a spindle shape when cooled, volcanic blocks - crushed pyroclus

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