Gamal Abdel Nasser
July 5, 2022
Gamal Abdel Nasser (Arabic: جمال عبد الناصر Gamāl ʿAbd an-Nāsir; Alexandria, January 15, 1918 - Cairo, September 28, 1970) was an Egyptian soldier and president. He was born in Alexandria and graduated from the Royal Military Academy in 1918. He was an officer in the Egyptian army. His political rise began in July 1952 with a military coup that overthrew King Farouk I. After the abolition of the monarchy in 1953 and the establishment of a one-party republic initially led by General Muhammad Nagib, Nasser took power in 1954. He successfully negotiated with the British to withdraw from Egypt, thus ending their decades-long control over Egypt. Nasser was elected president of Egypt in 1956, and in the same year he made the decision to nationalize the Suez Canal. In 1958, he sought to flesh out his ideas of Arab unity by forming a federation of Egypt and Syria - the United Arab Republic - under his presidency. But the UAR collapsed after the military coup in Syria. Nasser distanced Egypt from Western countries, and became famous for the concept of Arab socialism and the nationalization of financial institutions, which was supposed to finance the industrialization of the country. For a while he was the most influential leader of the Arab world. Israel's attack on Egypt in 1967 in the Six-Day War and the heavy Egyptian defeat that resulted was the reason Nasser resigned the same year. At the request of the public, he returned to office, but he never managed to restore the reputation of a pan-Arab leader that he had before the war. He died in 1970 in Cairo.