October 28, 2021

Gladiators (lat. Gladiatōrēs) were fighters in ancient Rome who fought in the arena against animals and against each other. The term "gladiator" comes from the word "gladius" (lat. Gladius), a short Roman sword for stabbing and cutting. Gladiator fights were introduced in Rome in the first half of the 3rd century BC. n. e. as part of funeral ceremonies, as a rite of sacrificing human lives to the shadows of the deceased. In the first recorded battle 264. p. n. e. only three couples fought. At the end of the 2nd century, gladiatorial fights became very popular performances that Roman emperors gave to their people. They were originally performed in the Forum, and later in amphitheaters throughout the Roman Empire. The most famous amphitheater is certainly the Roman Colosseum. Gladiators could be slaves or prisoners of war who were obliged to fight, criminals who wanted to escape the death penalty, or free people who wanted to earn money and get out of poverty. The men were not the only ones fighting in the arena. Women, who usually disguised themselves as legendary Amazons, also fought. At the beginning of the 3rd century, Emperor Septimius Severus forbade the struggle of women. Gladiator fights were abolished with the strengthening of Christianity, on the basis of the law of Emperor Constantine the Great from the year 325, but they continued to be held sporadically until around the year 450. The last gladiatorial battles in the city of Rome took place on January 1, 404. Origin and short history The origin of gladiatorial fights lies in the religious tradition. It is assumed that this tradition has predecessors in the ancient cultures of the Apennine Peninsula, most likely the Etruscan, and that these were in fact the sacrifices of human sacrifices in honor of the warriors who fell in battle. Mostly it was two prisoners forced to fight to the death on the grave of fallen heroes. The Roman historian Titus Livius noted that the first gladiatorial battles were held in 310 BC. n. e. in Campania, and that they represented the celebration of the victory of the Campanians over the Samnites. The first Roman gladiatorial battles were held in 246 BC. n. e. They were organized by Marko and Decimo Brut just before the beginning of the Punic Wars, in honor of their father, Junius Brutus. It was a modest spectacle with only three duels of slaves on the cattle market. Gradually, gladiatorial fights became more and more public

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