Grapes are the name for the fruit of plants from the genus Vitis (grapevine), which often refers to the 12 basic and most famous types of grapevine, from which most of the world's wines are made. Earlier, wines were labeled according to the area where grapes are grown, but later the number of producers and areas with vineyards increased so much that labeling according to grape variety was introduced.
Grapes are a type of fruit that grows in groups of 15 to 300, and can be red, black, dark blue, yellow, green, orange and pink. "White" grapes are actually green in color, and were evolutionarily derived from purple grapes. Mutations in two regulatory genes of white grapes exclude the production of anthocyanin, which is responsible for the color of purple grapes. Anthocyanins and other pigment chemicals from the large polyphenol family in purple grapes are responsible for the varying shades of purple in red wines. Grape grains typically have an ellipsoidal shape, reminiscent of an expanded spheroid.
Cabernet Sauvignon - This is the most popular grape in the world when it comes to red wine production. It is grown in Bulgaria, Chile, Australia, California, southern France. It has small blue-black grains with thick skin, late leafing and late ripening.
Merlot or Merlot (French: Merlot) - This grape is used to make the most expensive red wine in the world - Chateay Petrus. It is grown in Bordeaux, has large grains with thin skin, tastes like blueberries and mint.
Nebbiolo (Italian: Nebbiolo) - Produces very complex red wines, thrives on limestone soil, at higher altitudes, mostly in northwestern Italy. Very dark in color, late ripening. Nebbiolo in Italian means little fog.
Pinot Noir - This grape is used to make the famous Burgundy. It thrives on limestone soil in eastern France. This is the "holy grail" of producers in many countries. It has thin black skin and thick, dense clusters. In addition to France, it is also grown in Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, Italy, Romania and the USA.
Syrah or Shiraz (French: Syrah or Shiraz) - Ancient black grapes from the Middle East. It is grown on granite, limestone and sand in the Rhône Valley (France), California and Australia. Blue-black color, has small grains and thick skin. It ripens relatively early. It gives high yields, so producers, if they want higher quality