October 18, 2021

Georgia (Georgian: država), is a country in the Caucasus region of Eurasia. It borders Russia in the north and northeast, Turkey and Armenia in the south, and Azerbaijan in the southeast, while in the west it reaches the shores of the Black Sea in the length of about 310 km. Georgia is a member of international organizations such as the Council of Europe, the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe, EUROCONTROL, the World Trade Organization and GUAM, and is also a signatory to NATO's Partnership for Peace program. Georgia covers an area of ​​69,700 km², of which 57,200 km² is under direct Georgian control, while 12,500 km² are controlled by the authorities of Abkhazia (8,600 km²) and South Ossetia (3,900 km²). According to estimates for 2012, Georgia had a population of just under 4.5 million. The capital and largest city in the country is Tbilisi, which is the seat of the president, national government and parliament, while from May 2012, the city of Kutaisi is the center of legislative power (parliament) until January 1, 2019. Larger cities are also Batumi, which has the function of the administrative center of the autonomous republic of Adjara and Rustavi (both over 100 thousand inhabitants). The city of Poti, which lies in the central part of the Black Sea coast, is the most important Georgian port. The majority of the population (over 80%) are ethnic Georgians, the official language is Georgian (except in the territory of the breakaway republics where the Abkhazian and Ossetian languages ​​are spoken), and about 80% of the population are members of the Georgian Orthodox Church. According to the state system, Georgia is a unitary semi-parliamentary state in which the executive power is shared by the president and the government. Georgia's terrain is dominated by the high mountain ranges of the Greater Caucasus in the north with numerous peaks exceeding 4,000 m above sea level, including the highest peak in the country, Shahar (at 5,200 m above sea level) and the Lesser Caucasus in the south. The Black Sea coast is quite low and swampy, and from the coast to the interior, the vast Colchis lowland spreads in the form of a funnel. The lowland areas are located in the eastern and central parts of the country and follow the flows of the largest Georgian rivers Kura (or Mtkvari) and its tributaries. The western part of the country belongs to the Black Sea basin, while the eastern part flows towards the Caspian Lake just across the Kura River. Powerful and independent kingdoms existed in the area of ​​today's Georgia during ancient times. Kingdom of Colchis

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