July 1, 2022

Egypt (Arab. مِصر, Miṣr — Misr, Egyp. Arab. مَصر‎, Maṣr — Masr, Coptic. Ⲭⲏⲙⲓ, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt (Arab. غوميرّة مصر العربيّة, مصر listen), is a transcontinental country whose territory is mostly lies in northeastern Africa, and a smaller part (the Sinai Peninsula) is located in southwestern Asia. Egypt covers an area of ​​about 1,001,450 km². It borders Libya to the west, Sudan to the south, the Mediterranean Sea to the north, and Israel and Gaza to the east. Egypt used to be called Misir in the Serbian language, and that name was retained in older books and poetry. The estimated population of Egypt for July 2009 is 83,082,869. Egypt is the 16th most populous country in the world, and the third in Africa (after Nigeria and Ethiopia). The capital is Cairo with 17.8 million inhabitants in the wider area Egypt is known for its ancient civilization and for some of the world's most famous monuments. Near Cairo are the Sphinx and the Great Pyramids. In the vicinity of the city of Luxor, in central Egypt, there are a large number of ancient archaeological sites such as the Karnak Temple and the Valley of the Kings. Today, Egypt is an important political and cultural center of the Middle East.


The geographical position of Egypt is extremely favorable. The Sinai Peninsula is a land bridge connecting Egypt with Asia. It is connected to Europe by the Mediterranean Sea, while the Suez Canal is an important junction of trade routes between the continents and is of great importance in the economy of Egypt due to the tolls paid at the entrance to the canal. To the north is the Mediterranean Sea, to the east is Gaza, Israel and the Red Sea, to the south is Sudan, and to the west is Libya. The extension in the north-south direction is 1,105 km, and east-west 1,129 km. The area of ​​Egypt is 997,739 km² (without the disputed area of ​​the Halaib triangle, which has an area of ​​20,580 km²). Less than a tenth of the total territory of Egypt is inhabited and cultivated. The territory includes the Nile valley and delta, as well as the Suez Canal, which connects the Mediterranean with the Gulf of Suez, an arm of the Red Sea.


More than 90% of the territory is occupied by deserts, including the Libyan (so-called Western Desert) in the west; part of the Sahara, the Arabian Desert (so-called Eastern) which borders the Red Sea and the Gulf of Suez in the east. The Libyan desert is known as the "great sand sea" in �