Enzyme

Article

January 27, 2022

An enzyme or enzyme is a biological catalyst, ie it has the power to affect the speed of a chemical reaction. Enzymes are necessary for life to be possible, because many reactions that take place in the body's cells are too slow and would lead to different products. would harm him. Defects, genetic mutations, insufficient or increased production of a single enzyme can be the main cause of severe genetic disorders. For example, phenylketonuria disorder is the result of a deficiency in the enzyme phenylalanine hydroxylase, which catalyzes the first step in the breakdown of the amino acid phenylalanine. If this enzyme does not function properly, and does not break down the amino acid, unlimited phenylalanine production leads to mental retardation. In addition to phenylketonuria, there are a number of other diseases, commonly called enzymopathy, which are caused by gene mutations, and the consequence of which is a lack of an enzyme. Like all catalysts, enzymes work by lowering the activation energy of the reaction, and thus speeding it up. Enzymes can speed up reactions at the level of several million times. The enzyme, like any catalyst, remains unchanged by the reaction it affects and this allows it, when one reaction is complete, to be incorporated into another, completely unchanged. Also, enzymes do not affect the relative energy between the reagent and the product, so they do not affect the equilibrium of the reaction. However, what separates the enzyme from all other catalysts is their specificity in terms of stereochemistry, chemical selectivity and specificity. The basic idea of ​​the enzyme is to connect the molecules of the reaction to which the enzyme acts, to create a complex composed of enzymes and molecules that is not long-term, and from that complex, or that interaction, we have the product of that reaction, while the enzyme remains completely unchanged. This is shown graphically: Enzymes are also used daily in products such as dishwashing detergents, laundry, and various other household chemicals. Today, more than 5,000 enzymes are known. The nomenclature of enzymes helps us in naming this large number of enzymes, and according to it, enzymes are given a name ending in -za, and the prefix is ​​a chemical substance that transforms, ie is affected by the enzyme. For example

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