Epilepsy

Article

October 28, 2021

Epilepsy or epilepsy (from the ancient Greek verb ἐπιλαμβάνειν which means "grab, grab or hit") is a group of long-term neurological disorders characterized by epileptic seizures. These seizures are episodes that can range from shorter and almost imperceptible to long periods of strong twitching. In epilepsy, seizures are usually recurrent, and have no immediate underlying cause, while seizures due to a specific cause are not considered epilepsy. In most cases, the cause is unknown, although in some people, among other things, epilepsy develops as a result of brain injury. , stroke, brain cancer, and drug and alcohol abuse. Epileptic seizures are the result of excessive or abnormal activity of cortical nerve cells in the brain. Diagnosis typically involves the exclusion of other conditions that could cause similar symptoms (such as syncope) as well as the detection of the presence of any other immediate causes. Epilepsy can often be confirmed by electroencephalogram. Epilepsy can be cured. Seizures can be controlled with medication in about 70% of cases. For those whose attacks do not respond to medication, surgery, neurostimulation, or changes in diet may be considered. Not all epileptic syndromes are lifelong, some do not last long, from 6 months to a year, and with the appropriate medication they can disappear completely and the person can be cured and function normally. A significant number of people improve to the extent that they no longer need medication. About 1% of people worldwide (65 million) have epilepsy, and almost 80% of cases occur in developing countries. Epilepsy becomes more common as people age. In the developed world, the onset of new cases occurs most often in infants and the elderly. In many areas of the world, people with epilepsy are restricted or not allowed to drive, but most can drive again after a period without seizures.

Signs and symptoms

Epilepsy is characterized by a long-term risk of recurrent seizures. These seizures can be presented in several ways depending on the part of the brain affected and the age of the person.

Attacks

The most common type (60%) of seizures are convulsions. Of these, two-thirds begin as focal seizures (which may become generalized) while one t

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