Ethanol

Article

January 27, 2022

Ethanol or ethyl alcohol, alcohol, spirits, spirits, spirits, is a popular name for an organic compound from the group of alcohols. It appears as a colorless liquid with a pleasant odor. Its name comes from the Arabic word al-kuhl, which means powder for coloring eyelids. It is most often produced from starchy and sugar raw materials by fermentation with the help of yeast. Ethanol is the main alcohol in alcoholic beverages, produced by the fermentation of sugar through yeast. It is a neurotoxic psychoactive substance and one of the oldest recreational drugs. It can cause alcohol intoxication when consumed in excessive amounts. It is used as a solvent and extractant, disinfectant, preservative and in the production of alcoholic beverages. Serves as a starting material for whole chemicals. The general formula of alcohol is R-O H, ie the hydroxyl group O H, bound to alkane, i.e. hydrocarbon chain. Carboxylic acids, which are obtained by oxidation of alcohol, have a similar structure. The hydroxyl group (functional group) consists of one hydrogen atom and one oxygen atom, therefore it is monovalent. Therefore, the chain to which the group is attached must be monovalent. Thus, for example. the summarized structural formula of ethanol will be CH3-CH2-OH.

Alcohol nomenclature

Alcohols are named by adding the suffix -ol to the name of the alkane. Thus, for example. alcohol with three carbon atoms to be propanol because an ol of alcohol was added to the name of the propane alkane. The longest chain of carbon atoms to which the hydroxyl group is attached is selected as the basic structure. The position of the hydroxyl group is marked with a number in front of the extension - ol. Multiple prefixes immediately before the suffix - ol are used to indicate the number of hydroxyl groups.

Chemical structure

Ethanol (formula: C2H5OH) belongs to the n-alkanols. It is derived from ethane alkane (C2H6) in which one hydrogen atom is replaced by a hydroxyl functional group (OH). Therefore, the suffix -ol was added to the name ethane in accordance with the IUPAC nomenclature. The name ethanol is used specifically for this chemical compound, while alcohol can refer to the entire group of chemical compounds of alcohol, which includes, among others, methanol, propanol, butanol and many others. Physical and chemical properties The most famous alcohol used in honey

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