Going out into outer space

Article

May 17, 2022

Going into outer space is any activity carried out by astronauts or astronauts outside their spacecraft, outside the boundaries of the Earth's atmosphere. This term most often refers to a spacewalk that takes place outside a spacecraft in low Earth orbit (such as the International Space Station), but was also used during lunar surface surveys - moonwalk walks, which were conducted by astronauts of the Apollo project between 1969 and 1972. The most commonly used acronym is EVA (from the English abbreviation EVA) (extra-vehicular activity), which in translation would mean activities outside the spaceship. During the last three missions of the Apollo project, the only EVAs in deep space have been conducted so far. During the return journey from the Moon to Earth, astronauts went into space to pick up canisters of film that were on the outside of the spacecraft. Astronauts also performed EVA to repair Skylab, while astronauts performed repairs at Mir station after damage caused by the Progress spacecraft. Russia, the United States and China are currently the only countries that have successfully conducted space travel.

History

NASA engineers coined the term extravehicular activity, which gave rise to the abbreviation EVA, which literally means activities outside the spaceship, in the early 1960s when planning missions to the Apollo Project Moon, because astronauts will leave their missions during these missions. spacecraft to collect soil samples and dismantle scientific experiments. In order to fulfill this and other goals set for the Apollo missions, the Gemini project was launched, which aimed to carry out activities outside the spacecraft with several crew members and to master them well before heading to the Moon. However, the Soviet Union was competitive, and wanted to maintain a leading role in manned space exploration in those pioneering days, so the Soviet Communist Party, led by Nikita Khrushchev, ordered a Vostok capsule that could accommodate only one the cosmonaut develops into a capsule for two or three crew members called Voshod, so they can stay ahead of the U.S. that developed the Gemini and Apollo capsules. The USSR managed to launch two Vos capsules