January 23, 2022

Iran (Persian: ایران), officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (pers. جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a country in southwest Asia. It borders Iraq and Turkey to the west, Armenia, Azerbaijan and Turkmenistan to the north, and Afghanistan and Pakistan to the east. In addition, it faces the Caspian Sea in the north and the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, part of the Indian Ocean, in the south. Iran is a multicultural country consisting of many ethnic and linguistic groups, the most numerous of which are Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%) and Luri (6%). the western part where the majority of the population lives (the Zagros and Alborz mountain ranges with the highest point of Iran, Damavanda 5671 m high). Along the Persian Gulf, the relief is lowland, and in the east, sparsely populated flat deserts with occasional salt lakes predominate. Islam is the state and most represented religion. The vast majority of Muslims are Shiites. The population mostly speaks Iranian languages, among which Persian stands out, which is spoken by slightly more than half of the population. In the northwest of the country lives a large Azerbaijani community (about 17 million inhabitants, more than in neighboring Azerbaijan). After the Islamic Revolution in 1979, Iran became a republic, but with the elected parliament and president, religious leaders headed by the supreme leader have a decisive say in many issues and the right to veto most decisions (this function was performed by Ayatollah Khomeini until his death in 1989). Iran's economy is based on oil production and agriculture. Iran is the fourth largest oil exporter in the world and has 10% of the world's reserves. Industrial production lags behind countries with similar GDP in terms of productivity.

Country name

Iranians have called their country Iran since ancient times. The ancient Iranian form of that name is Arjanam, meaning the land of the Aryans. Until the 20th century, the common name Persia came from the Achaemenids, who in the 6th century BC. n. e. founded the first Persian Empire. It consisted of the area around the present-day province of Fars around the city of Shiraz, from which Farsi, the name of the Persian language, is derived. The ancient Greeks called this province Persis. The geographical term Iran encompasses the entire Iranian plateau. That is, the state of Iran, as well as certain areas of neighboring countries.



Iran is bigger

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