May 19, 2022

Canada is a federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy in northern North America. It is a community of ten provinces and three territories stretching from the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean and north to the Arctic Ocean, covering about 9.98 million km, making Canada the second largest country in the world by total area and the second largest by land area. In the south, Canada borders the United States, and their border is the longest border between the two countries in the world. Most of the country has a cold or very cold winter climate, but the southern areas are warm during the summer. Canada is a sparsely populated country, with forests and tundra, as well as the Rocky Mountains, predominating over most of the mainland. The country is highly urbanized, 82% of the over 35 million inhabitants live in large or medium-sized cities, many of which are located near the southern border. The state capital is Ottawa, and the largest metropolitan areas are Toronto, Montreal and Vancouver. Before European colonization, the territory of today's Canada was inhabited by numerous indigenous peoples for several thousand years. Beginning in the late 16th century, British and French colonies were established, the first being the Canadian colony established by France in 1533. As a result of various armed conflicts, British North America gained and lost territories, until the end of the 18th century, when it controlled most of what is today Canada. On July 1, 1867, the colonies of then-Canada, New Brunswick, and Nova Scotia merged to form a semi-autonomous federal Dominion called Canada. This was followed by the gathering of new provinces and territories within the Dominion, and today that number is: ten provinces and three territories, which make up modern Canada. In 1931, Canada achieved almost complete independence with the Westminster Statute of 1931, except for the power to change its constitution. With the Canada Act of 1982, Canada took over that authority (as a partisan conclusion). Queen Elizabeth II is the head of state. The state is officially bilingual at the federal level. It is one of the most ethnically diverse and multicultural countries, which is a consequence of large immigration from many other parts of the world. Its advanced economy is the tenth largest in the world, it relies on